PDF Ace Your Exams: Organic Chemistry Review - Aldehydes and Ketones (Quick Review Notes)

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Some are good in Mathematics, while others are better with theory. Accordingly focus on those units which you can handle revising and getting a solid grip on at this last moment. So, you will need to remember every example of reactions, both organic and inorganic. When practicing numericals, make sure you cover all the examples in between chapters and the exercise questions at the end of each chapter.

The following units hold the highest weightage for Class 12 Chemistry Board exams in decreasing order:. Check out the chapter-wise marking division here. Questions are often repeated in Chemistry and solving previous years' question papers goes a long way to helping you ace in your Chemistry exams as it helps you with time management long with an understanding of the question pattern.

If you haven't been solving these papers, don't waste your time at this last minute. Instead, sit with a solved question paper book of previous years and go through each and every question. Solve the trickier numericals in your notebook and mark the kind of Reaction questions asked often. If you are good at Maths, you might find Physical Chemistry right up your alley.

Physical Chemistry constitutes of Units 1 to 5 and constitutes a total of 23 marks. Write down and memorise all the formulae and make sure you solve at least one or two questions of the style you find most difficult. In such questions, make sure you provide the correct reasons. The previous years' questions will help you understand what kinds of questions are likely to be asked.

RCOR E. Name the following: Mechanism of Reaction: the detailed course of overall reaction.

Types of Bond Cleavage Types of Reaction Intermediates Substitution Reaction Addition Reaction Elimination Reactions Rearrangement Reaction Atomic Bonds 1. Ionic bonding 2. Covalent bonding 3. Hydrogen bonding or bridging 4. Van der Waals London forces Atomic Bonds Other electrostatic attraction: a Ion-dipole Interactions b Dipole-dipole interactions c Ion-induced dipole interactions d Dipole-induced dipole interactions e Induce dipole — induced dipole interactions Atomic Bonds Lapig, RPh April — May What is Medicinal Chemistry?

New Field in Medicinal Chemistry: Biotechnology Random screening B. Extraction from natural resources C.

I can take my own notes, why do I need these?

Serendipity D. Molecular manipulation E.

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Remember the following terms: The cell synthesize more receptors to counter the antagonistic effects. Drug Classification Drug Development Life Cycle for new drug : Amantadine Helpful mnemonics Recombinant DNA b. Sources of Drugs With controlled experimentation, they found it cured mice with bacterial infections. KCl, and lithium carbonate an antipsychotic. Biochemical, botanical or zoological name- substance of plant or animal origin that cannot be classified as pure chemical compounds.

Drug Name Types: Trademark name- developed by the manufacturer; selected for their ease of recall but does not give a scientific information about the drug. Specific for a given compound even though it may possess a stem common to a related group of drug. Naming of Drugs Prodrug Subcutaneous B. Rectal C.

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Intravenous D. Oral Systematically active drugs must enter and be transported by body fluids. Dissolution rate B. Metabolism C. Elimination rate D. A and B Question: Solubility Polarity B. Acidity and basicity C. Reactivity Solubility Prediction Soluble Insoluble Sites of Drug Biotransformation 2. Liver hepatic metabolism or First Pass Effect The most important organ in drug metabolism 1.

Blood Circulation Absorb orally administered drugs Monoamine oxidase B. Cytochrome P C. Catalase D. Ligase E. Esterase Question Readily available supply of d-glucuronic acid from glucose 2.

Numerous functional groups that combine enzymatically with glucuronic acid 3. Glucuronyl moiety, polar hydroxyl groups which greatly increases water solubility when attached to the xenobiotics substrate. Inhibition vs. They alter the shape of the enzymes such that the active site is no longer recognizable. Oxidation of mercaptopurine B. Demethylation of morphine C. Deakylation of isoniazid D. Isomerization of retinoic acid Types of Pharmacologic Action of the Drugs Drug-Receptor Theories Many substance possess different effect , some have high affinity for the receptor, some have low affinity and some are not effective, and those ineffective substances block or inhibit the receptor.

What is QSAR? Only the l-isomer of ascorbic acid has anti-scurvy activity B. Only the d-isomer of the a and b-glucose show high affinity for the human RBC sugar transfer system C. Only the l-isomer of a-methyldopa has hypotensive property D.

Structures & reactions of organic compounds | A Level Revision Notes

Only the l-isomer always has high anti-bacterial activity For example, levo-phenol has narcotic, analgesic, and antitussive properties, whereas its mirror image, dextro-phenol, has only antitussive activity. Steric Features and Pharmacologic Activity For example, the trans antiperiplanar conformation of acetylcholine binds to the muscarinic receptor, where as the gauche conformation binds to the nicotinic receptor.

Isosterism, Bio-isosterism and Pharmacological activity Isosterism: Any two ions or molecules having an identical number and arrangement of electrons; the term is used to describe the selection of structural components — steric, electronic and solubility characteristics that makes them interchangeable in drugs of the same pharmacological class. Isosterism, Bio-isosterism and Pharmacological activity Sulfonamides B. Enols, Enolates, and the Aldol Condensation: alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones - Acidity of Aldehydes and Ketones: enolate ions - Keto-enol equilibria - Halogenation and alkylation - Aldol condensations - Conjugate additions to unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones, Michael addition 8.

Class XII Chemistry Notes

Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives - Structure and properties of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives - Preparation of Carboxylic Acids - Substitution at the carboxy carbon: addition-elimination mechanism - Reduction and bromination reactions - Relative reactivities of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives esters, amides, anhydrides, acyl halides and their chemistry. Lactones and lactams. Experimental Organic Chemistry Study-Unit Aims: This study-unit aims to present the reactions of the most common classes of simple organic compounds as detailed in the study-unit description.

Furthermore, students will also be trained to perform organic chemistry experiments and interpret results. Learning Outcomes: 1. Skills : By the end of the study-unit the student will be able to: - Manage information to solve problems.