Informed dialogue however, and meaningful negotiation over policy choices require competence to deal with difficult technical information—if only to prevent such choices from being masked as technical imperatives. Scientific knowledge, like land, labour and capital, is a resource—indeed a commodity—and the ability to manipulate and control this resource has profound implications for the distribution of political power in democratic societies.
Abstract The evaluation of holistic care The integration of alternative medicine into the official healthcare system is an important issue. One of the factors the Quebec authorities concerned will consider when a decision is made in this respect will undoubtedly be the effectiveness of alternative therapies, i.
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This text describes the stages of the research carried out to evaluate articles, published in English or French since , on the effectiveness of certain alternative care methods. The selection of the articles and the choice and use of the evaluation grid are presented in detail. Finally, the question of the credibility and validity of the articles, which is at the heart of the debate on the therapeutic effectiveness of alternative medicine, is analyzed.
Yves Lochard et Maud Simonet-Cusset Entre science et politique : les politiques du savoir dans le monde associatif. Abstract Between science and politics: Social knowledge in the community sector Since the s, the community sector has developed its own social knowledge and claimed recognition of this contribution to social analysis. An analysis of the discourses and practices of actors documents a wide range of political positions of the sector with respect to its double relationship: to scientists and to the state.
In all cases there is a similar tension. Despite variety and the pressure for co-existence, there is a tension between the a logic of action and that of social knowledge. Abstract Gender and class relations combine and interact differently over time, producing configurations that structure individual destinies. On the basis of several biographical surveys of women and heterosexual couples, this paper analyses the reciprocal dynamics of class and gender relations and the way they configure the lives of working-class women and couples.
How do these relations interact?
We show that sometimes they mutually amplify each other, while in other cases, paths for upward mobility open up in which only a few specific conjugal configurations help reduce gender inequalities. Abstract An examination of the migration patterns of working-class Comorians sheds light on significant inequalities with respect to mobility, access to emigration and ability to transform geographic mobility into upward social mobility.
Migration thus fosters both mobility and social reproduction within the working classes. As a result, sociological studies seem to have alternated between empirical descriptions and proposals for new paradigms. By giving serious consideration to the third dimension of social space i.
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It aims to examine the issue of the enlistment of young people from working class urban areas. The point is to investigate the connection between their life paths and their engagement decisions. The study not only identifies their motivations and expectations, but it also highlights the resources and diverse strategies used by these actors in order to integrate a highly symbolic institution. Les t Abstract Deindustrialization is driving a generalized recomposition of the working classes.
Regions that into the s were still organized around industry have become places of social relegation, especially for youth. Young people there are no longer managing to become independent adults chiefly because of a lack of jobs or conceive of plans for their futures, nor can they imagine themselves outside of the immediate area in which they live and their network of friends and family. As a result, they feel trapped by their youth, which causes them to turn in on themselves and their entourage.
Abstract This paper concerns inequalities with respect to public action in working-class groups. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods, it analyses the social differentiation mechanisms of recourse to the enforceable right to housing known in France as DALO and its handling. It contributes, firstly, to the study of the stratification of working-class groups : various configurations of social property and housing situations are distinguished among DALO applicants. It also highlights inequalities with respect to administrative justice and social action in working-class communities : the characteristics of DALO applicants determine both the terms and conditions of ownership of the procedure and the public handling of their situation.
Abstract Since the early s, France has been struggling with an affordable-housing crisis. At the same time, the overall comfort of new housing has been improving, giving families who can afford to live there a better quality of life. But who is this privilege reserved for? Are working-class households excluded from new housing? Two complementary approaches can be taken to this question.
One concerns the affordability of new housing intended for working-class families. The other focuses on the social groups that have moved into these newly built housing units. When talking on the behalf of lower classes, politicians tend to build illusionary images about them, that convey lots of implicit ideas and must be undone.
Secondly, the author highlights the gap between these lines and the actual activist practices. Through the portraits of two young activists — a left-winger PCF and a right-winger UMP — we try to demonstrate how the sociologist could suggest a more empirical look on lower class politicization, particularly by wondering about their social marginalization in militant groups. Abstract This paper analyses a controversy surrounding the conservation of disused pitheads in a former mining area in France.
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The mobilization around this issue, as well as the lack thereof, reveals a variety of positions with regard to the actual and symbolic appropriation of urban space. An analysis of the breakdown of different attitudes hostile, favourable or indifferent shows a configuration of various actors and groups cultural administration, elected officials, heritage association, trade unions, residents whose relationships to the issue and reasons for acting are specific and largely incompatible.
The conservation of traces of the industrial past, in the particular form of a heritage designation, is thus associated with a form of voluntarism, about which it is interesting to observe the optimal conditions within a given territorial space.
The ultimate failure of conservation efforts highlights the weak institutional, political and social independence of the cultural repertoire of spatial organization. Abstract This paper discusses the results of a study of a participatory process concerning the location of a future mosque in Florence, a particularly controversial subject in Italy. The process was supposed to be a means of creating sufficient legitimacy for building the place of worship. From the outset, the debate looked like it would be heated. Yet without a specific planned location for the mosque—which could have provided spatial points of reference for the debate—participation mainly took the form of a cultural debate on the place of Islam in the Italian public sphere.
Although the consultants attempted to enliven the debate by asking architects to suggest hypothetical locations for the mosque, this respatialization of the question failed to spark the anticipated debate among participants. Instead, controversy emerged within the Muslim community, revealing territorial rifts. So it did not lead to a decision on the location of the mosque, but paradoxically strengthened the representation of Muslims locally.
Confab is used here to mean a small group of people unaffiliated residents along with well-known actors in the consultation system , limited in time and space, that focuses on a precise target, leading to widespread airing of the issues raised.
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Abstract Many territorial foresight exercises in France today are participatory. After a review of specifications for exercises conducted by urban agglomeration agencies, this paper examines the world of the consultants who run these exercises, investigating their know-how, history and ways of combining references and professional experience. Multipositioned, with a broad culture of public action, these actors are proposing methodological innovations anchored in the perception, transcription and expression of urban issues. Abstract Social acceptance of large-scale development projects is still a major issue for public authorities, especially when the planned projects have wide-ranging impacts on the ecology, environment and landscape.
In the course of a project to relocate an extra-high-voltage power line in the Champagne-Ardenne region of France, the transmission system operator RTE-Nord wanted to add a collaborative process with residents to the official participation mechanisms. Their experiences transformed the location from a simple infrastructure construction site into an area serving as an empowering social operator in the generation of geographic meaning.
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Vast landscapes became a new and different basis for common interests and actions. Martel - Le design social : une sociologie des associations par le design? Abstract This paper presents a study begun in fall of the conditions, issues and effects of incorporating principles of open innovation and, more particularly, the design and co-design approach, into the development of institutions like public libraries.
It first outlines an original pragmatic theory of social design, on the boundary between design and sociology, as the sociology of associations by design. It then presents two action research codesign processes carried out in as part of City of Montreal library renovation projects. Abstract This paper examines the construction of an open school, from its genesis through to implementation.
By exploring this project that used social design to create a school, we will consider the implications of national and local policies, as well as the interrelationships among the various actors who, through their involvement in the architectural project, raised important pedagogical issues. Abstract This paper investigates the ability of participatory housing to open up the process of housing production to future residents, making it a tool for democratization.
Participatory housing, pioneered by households with significant resources, has gradually opened up to other groups, but also and especially to professionals in the field who have risen to the rank of partners, paving the way, in theory at least, for a democratization of housing production. Its institutionalization through the French act respecting access to housing and renewed urbanism loi Alur is, however, starting modestly to raise the issue of the implications of a project that is still costly, for both residents and housing-production professionals. Participatory housing may nevertheless disrupt traditional representations of housing production and cause a shift to a new paradigm, one in which the customer-tenant becomes a citizen-resident.
Abstract Vienna is seeing a renaissance in participatory housing in the form of community housing initiatives, known as Baugruppen. Following on from isolated projects, a community housing project is currently under construction in the new neighbourhood of Seestadt Aspern, and the first residents are expected to arrive in fall This type of housing, which is the latest addition to the institutionalized supply of affordable housing, relies on a complex system of actors, from developers to architects, with diverging spatial sensibilities and interests.
This paper analyses the behaviour of the actors involved in a participatory housing project whose social design is determined primarily by top-down requirements and deep-rooted societal traditions. Abstract This paper examines the legacy of Robert Owen — in the British left, between mythicization and unresolved conflicting interpretations.
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The views on society and the economy contained in the program reflect the established ideas characteristic of the professional circles in which the economists involved in developing the program were active. Abstract The concepts of corporate citizen and corporate citizenship are economic utopias that challenge traditional ideas about business enterprises.
The traditional representation is rooted in an economic ideology in which business autonomy is legitimated by efficiency and a mercantile political project in which the common good depends on the self-interests of the individual actors. The trend in favour of social responsibility has renewed this representation by suggesting that the enterprise must not only pursue its own interests or those of its shareholders , but also take into consideration the interests of other stakeholders and society at large. In the latest variation of this trend, the concepts of corporate citizen and corporate citizenship diverge even more sharply from the traditional representation of the business enterprise.
By using the vocabulary of citizenship, they promote the enterprise to the rank of political actor, thereby eliminating the boundary between the economic world, in which rationality, efficiency and perfection dominate, and the political world, marked by debate and contingent choices. Yet while giving enterprises a formal, legitimate political role, the corporate citizenship trend neglects their influence on public policies and remains closed to critical analysis. In fact, by equating an enterprise with a political actor, the corporate citizenship representation of the business enterprise obscures the issues involved in regulating an economic society having democratic pretensions.
Abstract This paper investigates the emergence and development of social entrepreneurship in France by analysing the activities of the members of the Mouvement des Entrepreneurs sociaux Mouves. How do they see the world? What tensions do their discourse and practices create among representatives of the social economy in France? In other words, the paper examines how the way that Mouves members deal with social entrepreneurship issues helps renew discourse and practices within the social economy, and especially among associations, in a context of reconfiguring the action of the social state.
Abstract Among contemporary economic utopias, short food supply chains are situated at the intersection of two politicized spheres : consumption and production. This paper reviews the dynamics of building a common discourse around these initiatives locally in this case, in the French Basque Country in relation to that of organizations active internationally. The experience of short supply chains, which are opening up to consumers, is an updated version of the old politicization of the agricultural and territorial development of the Basque Country. Bringing producers and consumers together, even if presented by the actors as being self-evident, is the result of efforts to build a world of common meaning from distinct repertoires of justification.
This utopia created in colonial and rural context had been transformed and made operational in an urban and migratory context. It provides Mouride entrepreneurs with the self-confidence they need and rely on to undertake their symbolic conquest of Western countries.
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Abstract In Ivory Coast, some large private companies set up antiretroviral ARV treatment access programs for their employees back in the late s. Abstract This paper sets out to analyse how microentrepreneurship evolves from an administrative and economic utopia—the founding of enterprises without formalities or risks—to a political and social utopia—individual initiative as a pillar of the social order.
It draws on a survey of archival material and interviews concerning the emergence of the exemption system for starting new businesses, introduced in , which encourages the unemployed to create their own jobs, while institutionalizing more extensively the practice of earning income from several sources. The paper highlights how the system serves as a means of freeing work from constraints, in sharp contrast with the regulated orders of wage earners and artisans.
It subsequently analyses a major justification for this crusade against labour market regulations : the fight against exclusion. Quelle consistance?